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RFID-DOOR

  • Published in DIY Projects

NFC/RFID WIFI Access Control hardware interfacing a cheap MFRC522, PN532 RFID, RDM6300 or Wiegand RFID readers with a Espressif's ESP8266 Microcontroller as Wifi Bridge to drive the door open coil / magnetic lock to unlock a home door and to include it into a home automatisation system. The pcb is designed with [KiCad](http://kicad-pcb.org/) an opensoure EDA System. Ready Gerber Files can be found under Gerber. Plz use the Version Tab for download the newest Release the Master Branch includes the current development stage! NFC/RFID WIFI Access Control hardware interfacing a cheap MFRC522, PN532 RFID, RDM6300 readers or Wiegand RFID readers with a Espressif's ESP8266 Microcontroller as Wifi Bridge to drive the door open coil to unlock a home door and to include it into a home automatisation system.

 

Ready to use with Firmware burned
order it for: € 24,90

Just the RFID-DOOR PCB
order it for: € 5,80

Features:

  • hard & software opensource
  • easy smart home integration
  • esp8266 based Wifi
  • web gui
  • node red integration
  • Powered by RingBell transformer, no seperate power source needed
  • No mechanical Relais magnetic lock is driven by opto mosfet
  • 5V D0/D1 Wiegand interface

The pcb is designed with [KiCad](http://kicad-pcb.org/) an opensoure EDA System. Ready Gerber Files can be found under Gerber. Plz use the Version Tab for download the newest Release the Master Branch includes the current development stage!  NFC/RFID WIFI Access Control hardware interfacing a cheap MFRC522, PN532 RFID, RDM6300 readers or Wiegand RFID readers with a Espressif's ESP8266 Microcontroller as Wifi Bridge to drive the door open coil to unlock a home door and to include it into a home automatisation system. The pcb is designed with [KiCad](http://kicad-pcb.org/) an opensoure EDA System. Ready Gerber Files can be found under Gerber. Plz use the Version Tab for download the newest Release the Master Branch includes the current development stage!

Getting started

Lets scribble a basic Door Bell Setup. We got a transformer a Ring Door Push Button and the Bell. The important part is the Ring Bell Transformer which transforms the AC power 220/110V to a lower AC level. For the RFID-DOOR  its important that the transformed AC level is max. 16V. Even if the RFID-DOOR can  handle up to 24V most RFID Readers can only handle max 16V DC (But read more under pitfalls). 

Standard Door Bell Setup

RFID-DOOR integrated into Door Bell Setup

Now we integrate the RFID-DOOR into the basic Setup. Therfor we need the RFID-Reader a Magnetic Lock and the RFID-DOOR hardware. The minmal setup works over simple Wiegand Door Reader that is connected to to the RFID-DOOR hardware. This connection needs the D0/D1 Datalines and the power supply form the RFID-DOOR. The D0/D1 interface is quite a form of RS232 so the cable length can be up to 100m max. The magentic door lock is connected by to wires to the RFID-DOOR. The magnetic lock is technical just a relais, thats why you don't need to care about polarity of the connection. Then we need a connection to the ring bell transformer. The ring bell transformer must deliver a AC voltage around  8-16V, the voltage is then transformed to the needed voltages. Mainly 5V for the DO/D1 Interface, 3,3V for the ESP8266 and depending on the Input to a DC ripple voltage between 8-16V DC for the RFID-READER. 

Hardware you need

 

  • marelab RFID-DOOR Board do it on your own with my opensource plans or order a pcb or ready to use hardware here
  • A MFRC522 RFID PCD Module or PN532 NFC Reader Module or RDM6300 125KHz RFID Module Wiegand based RFID reader
  • n quantity of Mifare Classic 1KB (recommended due to available code base) PICCs (RFID Tags) equivalent to User Number
  • A door Relay/magnetic lock 8-12V
  • A Ringbell Transformer 8-12V

 

Software you need

  • Get the latest firmware for RFID-DOOR software from here only when you build it on your own 
Building the firmware on your own:

Setup & get it running

  • After flashing the RFID-DOOR firmware the device can be reached over Wifi. 
  • Search for Wireless Network "esp-rfid-xxxxxx" and connect to it. (It should be an open network and does not require password).
  • Open your browser and type either "http://192.168.4.1" or "http://esp-rfid.local" (.local needs Bonjour installed on your computer) on address bar.
  • Log on to RFID-DOOR, default password is "admin".
  • Go to "Settings" page Configure your amazing access control device.
  • Push "Scan" button to join your wireless network, configure RFID hardware, Relay Module.
  • Save settings, when rebooted your RFID-DOOR will try to join your wireless network.
  • Check your new IP address from serial monitor and connect to your ESP again. (You can also connect to "http://esp-rfid.local").
  • Go to "Users" page Scan a PICC (RFID Tag) then it should glimpse on your Browser's screen.
  • Type "User Name" or "Label" for the PICC you scanned.
  • Choose "Allow Access" if you want to Click "Add" Congratulations, everything went well, if you encounter any issue feel free to ask help on GitHub.

RFID-DOOR Connectors

Number Function ESP8266
1 DoorR / Magnetic Look / Door Relais Conector -
2 DoorR / Magnetic Look / Door Relais Conector -
3 12V out / 12V+ DC -
4 D0 Wiegand D0 GPIO-04*
5 D1 Wiegand D1 GPIO-05*
6 LED GPIO-05
7 W26 GPIO-05
8 BUZ GPIO-05
9 GND .
10  GND .
11 12V AC .
12 12V AC .
13 JP4 Reset GPIO-05
14 JP5 Firmware Upload enable GPIO-05
  JP3-1 3,3V Serial Connector to ESP8266 GPIO-05
  JP3-2 TX Serial Connector to ESP8266 GPIO-05
  JP3-3 RX Serial Connector to ESP8266 GPIO-05
  JP3-4 GND Serial Connector to ESP8266 GPIO-05

(*) 5V In/Output Signal

RFID-DOOR Functional Blocks

Letter Hardware Function Block
A Switches the Magnetic Lock/Door Relais by Opto Mosfet and 2W Magnetic Lock Resistor that limits starting current
B 3,3V Linear Driver for ESP8266 supply
C Diode Bridge & Self Resetable Fuse for converting AC to DC Ripple power. The Cxx Cap is decoupled by a the Diode Dxx if the 12V of the Bridge falls down for ms while the magnetic lock is used it delivers the energy for the 5V stage
D 5V StepDown Converter that powers (B) and the MosFet for (E)
E n / Out 3,3V Signal Lines ESP to 5V on Conector

 

 

Building & Setup Hardware

 

The AC Ring Bell Transformer

Be carefull with 12V AC Ring bell transformers. The DC Voltage after the Diode bridge can be around 18V DC!!! That will not kill the RFID-DOOR hardware but it will kill a 12V RFID Reader that is connected to the RFID-DOOR. Why is that happening most Readers have a build in AMS1117 Voltage regulator wich has a maximum 16V input. The RFID-DOOR transforms the AC input Voltage in three stages first Stage is a diode bridge to transform AC to rippled DC then a Step Down Regulator generates 5V DC that can handle 24V DC input next the 5V is converted to 3,3V with a AMS1117 for the ESP. The RFID-DOOR won't get killed because the AMS1117 lives behind the 5V StepDown stage. The Rippled DC is connected directly to the power reader connectors. The easiest way to get around that problem is using a 8V AC Ringbell transformer. For example someting like this:  Just use the 8V instead of 12V. The rippled DC after the Diode Bridge on the RFID-DOOR device is around 14-15V and in the range a AMS1117 of the RFID-Reader can handle. Just for details about german standard and regulations for the bell transformer that has to be used. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klingeltransformator 

 

Placing the ACT4088 IC

The ACT4088 Step Down is a quite tiny part and its quite inpossible to indetify Pin1 without a mircoscope or strong lense. As hint thats a picture of the ACT4088 to find Pin1 as marked in the image. 

 

 

CAD Drawing

 The Encloser drill holes dimension is 2,5 mm

 

Special Configuration solder bridges

The board can be customized for special needs if you don't want or have a standard configuration. Some solder Bridges see the pictures of the PCB Back & Top where to find them can configure direct 12V DC Input and or disable the 5V Stage for the D0 / D1 pins.

!!!Warning all described here might disable some safety features of the board so you should totaly know what you are doing using this!!!

12V DC Power Input
If your power source is 12V DC you don't need the Diode Bridge and the Capacitor Cxx to be soldered on the board. Solder the JP1 and JP2 Solder Bridge Jumpers
.
3,3V DO / D1 Wiegand Interface
If you don't need a 5V TTL compatble In/Out of the D1/D0 Lines just solder the Solder Bridges JP7/JP8. Don't solder then the Mosfets Q1 & Q2 as well as the four Resistors Rxx,Rxx,Rxx,Rxx.
Bridge the Magnetic Lock / Door Relais
current limitation By solder the JP3 Bridge the R1 2W Resistor is bridged and so no current limitation of a starting magentic coil / Door Lock saves the MosFet!!! The R1 Resitor don't need to be solderd anymore.

 

Software

Wich firmware should I use?

If you want to have a smart home integration or want to manage more then one Door I would recomend the marelab version, because of the extended MQTT functions and multi device support. Otherwise you can use also the orginal firmware from the ESP-RFID Project.

Using Compiled Binaries

Download compiled binaries from GitHub Releases page:

Flashing the device

For a selfmade NF-DOOR pcb you need a USB to serial Bridge to flash the first Version. New Firmware Versions can then be updated by OTA (Over the Air Wifi Update) done with the web gui. If you bought the RFID-DOOR Hardware the ESP is already programmed with the firmware so you don't need the USB to serial adapter for flashing. On Windows you can use "flash.bat", it will ask you which COM port that ESP is connected and then flashes it. You can use any flashing tool and do the flashing manually. The flashing process itself has been described at numerous places on Internet.

Self building With PlatformIO

Backend

The build environment is based on PlatformIO. Follow the instructions found here: http://platformio.org/#!/get-started for installing it but skip the platform init step as this has already been done, modified and it is included in this repository. In summary:

sudo pip install -U pip setuptools
sudo pip install -U platformio
git clone https://github.com/esprfid/esp-rfid.git
cd esp-rfid platformio run

When you run platformio run for the first time, it will download the toolchains and all necessary libraries automatically.

Debug information

When you compiling and flashing a debug Version the ESP sends Debug Messages over the Serial Port thats usefull for trace and test purpose.

Useful commands:
  • platformio run - process/build all targets
  • platformio run -e generic -t upload - process/build and flash just the ESP12e target
  • platformio run -e debug -t upload - process/build and flash just the ESP12e target
  • platformio run -t clean - clean project (remove compiled files)

The resulting (built) image(s) can be found in the directory /bin created during the build process.

Frontend

You can not simply edit Web UI files because you will need to convert them to C arrays, which can be done automatically by a gulp script that can be found in tools directory or you can use compiled executables at the same directory as well (for Windows PCs only).

If you want to edit esp-rfid's Web UI you will need (unless using compiled executables):

  • NodeJS
  • npm (comes with NodeJS installer)
  • Gulp (can be installed with npm)

Gulp script also minifies HTML and JS files and compresses (gzip) them.

In order to test your changes without flashing the firmware you can launch websocket emulator which is included in tools directory.

  • You will need to Node JS for websocket emulator.
  • Run npm update to install dependencies
  • Run emulator node wserver.js
  • then you will need to launch your browser with CORS disabled:
  • chrome.exe --args --disable-web-security -–allow-file-access-from-files --user-data-dir="C:\Users\USERNAME"

Get more information here: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3102819/disable-same-origin-policy-in-chrome

Pin Layout

The following table shows the typical pin layout used for connecting readers hardware to ESP:

ESP8266 NodeMcu/WeMos Wiegand PN532 MFRC522 RDM6300
GPIO-15 D8   SS SDA/SS  
GPIO-13 D7 D0 MOSI MOSI  
GPIO-12 D6 D1 MISO MISO  
GPIO-14 D5   SCK SCK TX
GPIO-04 D2        
GPIO-05 D1        

For Wiegand based readers, you can configure D0 and D1 pins via settings page. By default, D0 is GPIO-4 and D1 is GPIO-5

Time

We are syncing time from a NTP Server (in Client -aka infrastructure- Mode). This will require ESP to have an Internet connection. Additionally your ESP can also work without Internet connection too (Access Point -aka Ad-Hoc- Mode), without giving up functionality. This will require you to do syncing manually. ESP can store and hold time for you approximately 51 days without a major issue, device time can drift from actual time depending on usage, temperature, etc. So you have to login to settings page and sync it in a timely fashion.

Security

We assume ESP-RFID project -as a whole- does not offer strong security. There are PICCs available that their UID (Unique Identification Numbers) can be set manually (Currently esp-rfid relies only UID to identify its users). Also there may be a bug in the code that may result free access to your belongings. And also, like every other network connected device esp-rfid is vulnerable to many attacks including Man-in-the-middle, Brute-force, etc.

This is a simple, hobby grade project, do not use it where strong security is needed.

What can be done to increase security? (by you and by us)

  • We are working on more secure ways to Authenticate RFID Tags.
  • You can disable wireless network to reduce attack surface. (This can be configured in Web UI Settings page)
  • Choose a strong password for the Web UI

Scalability

Since we are limited on both flash and ram size things may get ugly at some point in the future. You can find out some test results below.

License

The code parts are licensed under MIT License, 3rd party libraries that are used by this project are licensed under different license schemes, please check them out as well.

 

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